The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

As soon as the baby is born, each mummy attentively peers at tiny features and tries to understand what he looks like?

The baby grew, changed, and your interest only grew, and you began to find your baby’s features (“oh, he has a nose like mine”), husband’s features (“and eyes like a daddy’s) or other relatives, This, of course, touched and delighted you.

And now you are very interested in what your child will be when he grows up, what else, apart from external features, will he inherit from parents and other relatives? We perfectly understand your curiosity! Therefore, we invite you to find out how heredity affects the physiological development of a child, which particular features of physiology can a baby inherit from relatives?

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The main thing - genes

Every child who is born has a complex of genes - units of heredity, which he inherited from his parents, as well as from more distant ancestors.

It is this set of genes that will determine in the future the peculiarities of the child’s physiological development. Of course, the development of a child depends not only on genes, the environment in which the baby grows also plays a huge role: its living conditions, diet, level of physical activity.

Andrei Zinovchenko, a geneticist:“Genes are units of heredity that are on chromosomes (chromosomes are special structures that are stored in the nucleus of cells and carry genetic information — ed.) In a specific order. Genes that influence the manifestation of a particular trait are located on the same parts of the chromosomes, they are called alleles. There are predominant and recessive alleles. For example, in terms of eye color, brown is dominant and blue is recessive. The dominant trait is the trait that manifests itself, and we see it. A recessive trait is a trait that is in the body in a latent state; it can manifest itself only when the gene for this trait is on the father’s chromosome and on the identical chromosome of the mother. ”

If the inherited trait is dominant, then it can be seen in one or both parents, as well as in grandparents.If the sign is recessive, then it can be seen in 25% of people of the same generation.

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Read also:Hereditary allergies: truth or myth?

The physiology of child development: what exactly can a baby inherit?

As a rule, all children inherit a certain set of physiological characteristics from their parents and more distant relatives, the main ones being:

A child can not inherit the skills of parents, their interests, talents. WITHit is read that talent depends entirely on the society in which the child is growing, as well as on the conditions of upbringing and education

  • skeleton structure;
  • the structure of internal and external organs: the shape of the nose, eyes, hands, etc .;
  • features of the functioning of the internal systems of the body: metabolic rate, for example;
  • length and body weight - it is believed that the genes that determine the speed and limit of human growth, about 100;
  • lung capacity;
  • eye color;
  • temperament;
  • hereditary diseases;
  • makings of abilities;
  • muscle strength of the hands and arms;
  • muscle development;
  • muscle tone;
  • development of the subcutaneous fat layer.

In this case, the baby can not inherit the skills of parents, their interests, talents.Science has not yet succeeded in identifying the genes responsible for giftedness, so it is believed that talent depends entirely on the society in which the child grows, as well as on the conditions of upbringing and training this or that skill, effort and perseverance of the child.

Hereditary diseases

It is very important to understand at the planning stage of pregnancy that a child can inherit from parents and more distant relatives not only external signs and features of the development of the organism, but also various diseases.

Read also:Methods of early development Zaitsev: the basics, the pros and cons

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The most common hereditary diseases are:

Canaven disease- it is characterized by damage to the nerve cells of the brain, as a result of which the child develops slowly, he has problems with swallowing, his head becomes too large, the muscles lose their tone, the child has seizures.

Tay-Sachs disease, amarotic childish early idiocy- a disease of the nervous system due to which, the child loses sight, hearing, ability to swallow, he has convulsions, muscles atrophy, paralysis occurs.

Hemophilia- a disease associated with impaired blood clotting, as a result of this disease, hemorrhages in the joints, muscles and internal organs may suddenly occur.

Color blindness, color blindness- A disease characterized by the inability to distinguish one or more colors.

Leucodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher- A disease of the nervous system characterized by destruction of the white matter of the brain, characterized by convulsions, developmental delay, muscle weakness.

Cystic fibrosis- A disease characterized by severe dysfunction of the respiratory organs and the gastrointestinal tract.

Neurofibromatosis- A disease characterized by the occurrence of tumors in a patient.

Spina Bifida- This is a defect that is characterized by incomplete closure of the neural tube in a partially formed spinal cord.

Peroneal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie disease- A disease whose main symptom is muscle atrophy of the lower extremities.

Down syndrome- A genetic disorder with a number of characteristics.

Mom forumchina Alina tells: “When I got pregnant, I was most afraid that the child would be born with some kind of genetic disease, I was most afraid of Down syndrome. From the first weeks of pregnancy, I asked the doctor how to check if this syndrome is present in the embryo. It turned out that a special blood test can be done that will show everything, but it is not done before 12 weeks, as I was told. How did I torture myself to this term! But when the analysis showed that everything is in order, my mountain just fell off my shoulders. ”

See also:Genetic diseases: when parents must be vigilant. Part 1.

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See also:Genetic diseases. Setting the diagnosis. Part 2.

Joubert's syndrome- A disease in which the cerebellum is missing or poorly developed, which is responsible for the coordination of movements.

Klinefelter syndrome- a disease characterized by abnormally tall, long legs, low intelligence, problems with verbal and cognitive abilities.

Prader-Willi Syndrome- a disease characterized by small growth, delayed physical and mental development.

Turner syndrome- a disease accompanied by abnormalities of physical development, short stature and sexual infantilism.

Engelmann syndrome- an anomaly, which is characterized by delayed development, sleep disturbances, seizures, chaotic hand movements, frequent laughter.

Phenylketonuria- a disease associated with impaired metabolism of phenylalanine, it is characterized by the accumulation of phenylalanine and its toxic products in the body, leads to damage to the nervous system.

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  • The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity

    The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity The physiological development of the child: the role of heredity