The nervous system of newborns: features of development

The nervous system of newborns: features of development

How the nervous system of the newborn develops, what the parents need to know about the nervous system of the infant, what is the norm, and when it is necessary to guard, we collected interesting and important facts about the nervous system of the baby.

The nervous system of the child begins to form in the womb. From the moment of conception and up to the age of 3 years, the reflexes of the baby, the reactions to the surrounding world and the skills change greatly. In the first year of life, the brain of a newborn doubles in size, and by the age of 3 it reaches 80% of the adult volume.

During this period, it is especially important to surround the child with care and love so that the baby has healthy neural connections and can quickly adapt to changes in the surrounding world.

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The development of the nervous system of the newborn

In the womb, the embryo gets everything he needs. During the period of maturation of the embryo, 25 thousand nerve cells are born in his brain every minute.It is important for mom to lead a healthy lifestyle so that the infant has a healthy nervous system.

5 facts about the nervous system of the newborn:

  1. By the end of the prenatal period, the central nervous system of the child is fully formed, but the adult brain is much more complex than the brain of the newborn.
  2. In normal fetal development and normal childbirth, a child is born, albeit with a structurally formed, but immature nervous system.
  3. Only after birth, the development of brain tissue occurs. The number of nerve cells in it after birth does not increase.
  4. The newborn has almost all the convolutions, but they are poorly expressed.
  5. Of all the divisions of the central nervous system, by the time the intrauterine maturation is completed, the spinal cord is the most mature.

The central nervous system regulates the activity of all organs and body systems.

Since she is not yet mature, a newborn may have various problems: colic in a child, irregular stools, anxiety. With the maturation of the nervous system of the newborn, everything is normalized.

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Baby health after birth:

Infants (from birth to 1 year) and babies (aged 1 to 2 years) grow quickly.

Physical development in infancy and childhood implies changes in the body and the work of internal organs, the development of reflexes, motor skills, sensations. A child gets acquainted with the outside world, studies himself, gets a new experience.

The first 4 weeks of life are called the neonatal period or the neonatal period.

It begins with the circumcision of the umbilical cord and lasts 28 days. It is divided into the early neonatal (the first 7 days of the infant's life) and the late neonatal period (lasts from the 8th to the 28th day).

In pediatrics, the early neonatal period is considered critical in the life of the newborn. The body adapts to the environment - the child learns to breathe himself, microorganisms appear in the intestinal tract to digest food, the body and organs adapt to the new conditions of thermoregulation.

In the first 7 days of life, the baby sleeps a lot. The nervous system is still immature, so the excitation processes are almost invisible.

ATIn the early period of the neonatal period, the baby may experience the following health problems:

  • erythema, which is in the form of vysyp6ii and redness on the skin
  • weight loss
  • jaundice
  • sexual or hormonal crisis
  • transient fever manifests itself as an elevated temperature that can last from 3 hours to several days.

In newborns, the appearance of such conditions is considered a natural phenomenon, but the infant must be under the supervision of doctors.

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In the late neonatal period, the child's body continues to adapt to changes. Passive immunity, which was formed in the womb due to antibodies from the mother's body, protects the infant from infections.

During this period, it is important to create a calm atmosphere in the house and comfortable conditions for the child to gain weight, while the nervous system continues to develop.

The development of the brain of the fetus and newborns also occurs rapidly. First, the lower or subcortical areas of the brain (responsible for basic life functions such as breathing) develop, then the areas of the cortex that are responsible for thinking and planning develop.

Most changes in the baby’s brain occur after birth.

At birth, the brain of a newborn weighs only 25% of the brain of an adult brain.

By the end of the second year, the brain weighs about 80%.

By puberty, the brain weighs almost 100% of the adult brain.

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Reflexes of newborns

Reflexes are automatic responses to stimulation that occur in babies before any learning begins. They indicate the healthy development of the child. Some reflexes appear spontaneously. Others are reactions to certain stimuli.

For example, a child begins to automatically suck, if you touch your lips with a nipple, turn your head when parents say they grab the finger that touches their hand.

Some reflexes, such as blinking, are constant. Others, for example, grabbing disappear after a few months.

Doctors check reflexes to determine the state of the nervous system.

  • Root or search reflex
    If you touch or stroke the corners of the child’s lips, the baby turns its head and opens its mouth in response to an irritant. The search reflex helps the child to find the breast or bottle. It is the basis for the development of mimic reactions.Reflex manifests itself from the first days to 4 months.
     
  • Sucking reflex
    With light touch to the lips or tongue of the newborn, rhythmic movements are noticeable. This skill is formed in the womb, at about the 36th week of pregnancy and lasts up to a year.
     
  • Grasp reflex (Robinson reflex)
    Stroking the palm of a child’s hand causes the fingers to clench into a fist. If it is easy to press on the foot - the toes will also shrink. The grasp reflex is manifested up to 5-6 months.
     
  • Hand-mouth reflex (Babkin reflex)
    If you press on the palm of the baby, he opens his mouth and tilts the head. Babkin's reflex is clearly visible in the first two months after birth.

The newborn also manifests unconditioned reflexes associated with maintaining body temperature, respiration, and blood circulation. In the baby during the first months of life, with healthy development of the nervous system, swallowing, blink reflexes are noticeable. During the first year of life, most of them pass.

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What can do babies up to a year

  • About a month after birth, the baby can lift the chin when they are lying on the stomach.
  • During the 2nd month, babies can raise the chest from the same position in which they lie.
  • By the 4th month, babies can raise rattles and also sit with support.
  • By the 5th month, babies can roll over.
  • By the 8th month, babies can sit without help.
  • After about 10 months, the babies can stand holding the object for support.

Of course, such criteria are indicative. The rates of physical and motor development vary in children depending on a number of factors.

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immaturity of the nervous system, symptoms of the maturation of the nervous system of children, the immature nervous system in a child, the development of the nervous system in children, the nervous newborn

How does a newborn perceive the world

Healthy babies respond to sensory information that comes from the outside world. Newborns are nearsighted, but visual acuity develops quickly.

Although children's vision is not as clear as an adult, they respond to images from birth.

Babies are especially attracted by the contrasting subjects of light dark shades. The human face is also of interest. Newborns even distinguish happy and sad expressions.

How does a child’s vision develop in the first year of life (video)

Newborns can also react to tastes, smells and sounds, especially to the sound of a human voice.From birth, the child knows the voice of her mother and learns the sounds of stories if she read books aloud while he was still in the womb.

Relying on sight, smells and sounds, a child from the first days distinguishes parents from other people. Infant sensory abilities are greatly improved during the first year.

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How to teach a newborn different skills

Learning is a process that leads to permanent behavioral changes based on experience. Babies learn in different ways.

Most often, the learning process looks like the application of rewards and / or penalties. Reinforcement reinforces the desired behavior, while negative reinforcement indicates which reaction is undesirable.

For example, a child who sees that a smile attracts parental attention smiles more at his parents.

Basically, newborns learn by observing and imitating others.

For example, a baby learns to clap, watching and imitating an older brother. This form of learning is the fastest and most natural way for children to learn new skills.

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Nevrnaya system of the baby: when it is necessary to guard

The nervous system of a child is very plastic and has a phenomenal ability to recover - it happens that the alarming symptoms discovered by a doctor in the first days of a baby’s life disappear without a trace.

Poor nutrition, hygiene and negligent health care threaten the healthy development of the child.

Parents should take care of good nutrition of the newborn (preference is given to breastfeeding), adherence to the rules of hygiene of the baby and, if necessary, receiving adequate medical care.

For example, proper vaccination is crucial to prevent contagious diseases such as diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella and polio.

READ ALSO:Vaccination schedule in Ukraine 2018

Do not be discouraged if during a neurological examination a child has any disturbances in the nervous system, for example, changes in muscle tone or reflexes.

The results of a single inspection are not decisive. And to speak about this or that neurological diagnosis is possible only after several examinations of the doctor.

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  • The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development

    The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development The nervous system of newborns: features of development