Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

Bubnova Ksenia Alexandrovna

Your child will be back to school soon and you want to prepare him as best you can. to that? Well, at your service a large number of techniques that will allow successfully cope with this task. If your child will study in Ukrainian school, working on the state program, you can use the traditional method (sound analytical and synthetic method). This method is no longer one decade is used in schools and kindergartens of Ukraine.

Some psychologists believe that teaching literacy should be started as soon as possible. earlier, others argue that early learning hinders the development of cognitive activity kids. Probably the best place to start serious work. with the child is still the age of four to five years.
And the work is really serious, because baby should familiarize with complex linguistic and verbal concepts, learn them practically. To the child was interested in studying, and the desire to study was not lost even before entering to school, training should be in the form of a game. You can use interesting the plot of the favorite fairy tale, to offer the child the role of the word, syllable, sound, organize competition (when teaching two or more children). Let the questions and tasks be offered child Pinocchio, Cheburashka, Dunno, Tom, Jerry or some other favorite fairy tale character.

What should a child learn in preparation for school?
The priority is to teach children the sound analysis of words. This skill formed as a special thought process during which children must consistently and correctly call in words sounds. It is not necessary to name the child sounds in a word. In the process of selection of individual sounds should not be required immediately characterize the sound (vowel, consonant, consonant hard, soft etc.)

It is necessary to teach to depict the word with the help of conventional symbols (chips) on the model, and these preliminary actions will become a reliable basis for literacy (without gaps and replace letters) letters.
In schools, working on the state program, use the following icons:
The vowel sound is depicted as a circle (large dot),
Hard consonant - stripe (dash),
Soft consonant - two parallel strips (dashes).
For example, DREAM - · -
STUMP = · =

Explain to the children that the circle denotes the sound (vowel) that can sing, say with your mouth open, and the circle looks like an open mouth. Sing together with the child, the vowels A o u i u s, utter them in a whisper to make sure that the mouth remains open. But when we pronounce consonants, it is necessary close the lips, teeth, so they are denoted by one or two dashes. Together with the baby, come to the “discovery”, that in the word “poppy” the first sound is a firm consonant [m], and in the word “ball” - a soft consonant [m`].
Make cards from cardboard to represent the sound scheme of words. Use a card to draw a word with your child. If baby want to model the word in the form of an application to show it later someone else. (Ask grandparents to “guess” what is this “mysterious badges ”).Didactic games with sounds in an entertaining way will teach a child perform a sound analysis of the word. If you have the opportunity to engage with several children, they can be given the role of certain sounds. Let the “sounds” become so to get the word (say, “nose”), and then swap places, they will think what other word can come out of them (NOSE - SON), etc.

Children should not just move around, but speak out loud the sounds formed syllables, words. If classes are held with one child, roles can play parents, older sisters and brothers, etc. The games should be interesting, emotionally.

You must remember that your baby is taking the first steps towards mastering sound word analysis. It is necessary in the game and entertaining form with him to perform exercises to determine the initial and final sounds in the words on the selection words with this or that sound.

Do not forget that for the selection of the words of the initial and final sounds first the simplest cases should be selected: for the vowels the most convenient for highlighting is the position when the sound is a separate syllable.
For example:
shark
perch
i-blow
Ukraine
Emma

To highlight the final vowel sounds, you should select words in which these sounds are under the stress (mountain, writing). In such a position vowels articulate clearly.
For consonants, the most convenient position to select is when the initial or the final sounds are outside the direct syllable of the “SG” type (consonant + vowel), which in the methodology of teaching literacy is called merging.
For example, the sounds highlighted in the following words:
eyebrow, nose, finger, forehead, elbow, schoolboy, back.

The next step in your baby’s training is to be able to produce a complete sound word analysis is the “recognition” of a given or independently allocated sound in other words (i.e., and in those where it can be in different positions, including in the “merger” structure). To sharpen phonemic The child’s hearing in the proposed word series should also include words in which This sound is not. For example, to recognize the sound “sh” you can suggest words: cabinet, bus, cat, chestnut, kidney, hat, beetle.
The child will be happy to take part in the game “Catch the sound” - when given sound is present in the word, you need to slap in the palm of your hand.

In the classroom, children should hear the correct, expressive speech of adults. Listening to the speech, the child learns that it consists of sentences. Concept itself “Proposal” is perceived and mastered purely practically: “Listen to this sentence...". With the help of an adult, a child makes an important “discovery” - an offer consists of words, there may be two, three and more (they should not be given yet for too long sentences, as well as one-word sentences). The most available in structure sentences are those in which the subject expressed noun (at least - personal pronoun), and the predicate - the verb. (Birds fly. They sing.) The order of the words is mostly straight. (The grass is turning green.) Here the subject stands before the predicate. But you can give and sentences that have reverse word order. (Spring will come soon. Will arrive birds.) Gradually, for analysis, it is necessary to introduce interrogative sentences (From birds will fly?) and motivations (float, my little ship.)

The next step in your activities with your child will be to make a schematic images of the proposal.The model of the sentence is built using the vertical traits (word) and mark (dot, exclamation and question marks).
For example,
Autumn came __ __ .
The air turned cool __ __ __.
Insects hid from the cold __ _ __ __.
Where are the birds going __ __ __?

Short words (prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns) children should denote shorter lines. The distance between the lines denoting single words make up one cell (models are depicted on a sheet into a cell).

So, your child must learn that a sentence consists of words; words can divided into syllables, as well as into individual sounds.

Now let's talk about how to teach children to divide words into syllables. Suggest child carefully look at how you pronounce the word "mom". Ask Did he notice how many times you opened your mouth? Now let him say the word "dad", and you count how many times he opened his mouth. In the same way “Explore” the words “milk”, “dog”, etc. And then it's time to tell “Secret” - how many times you need to open your mouth to pronounce a word, so much in him and the syllables.Practice determining the number of syllables in words, suggest the game “Who is more careful?” Introduce the child with this technique: to substitute the palm under the chin and utter the word - the palm goes down while pronouncing every syllable. To divide, first select words that consist of two syllables. “merge” type: ma-ma, li-pa, se-no, mo-re. Then suggest words like mo-roses, kni-ga, gri-kra, kra-si –vo.

A useful and interesting type of work related to yearning is pronouncing by syllables counts. Children will love this kind of work. the process of outdoor games, dramatization (the child, performing the appropriate movements, pronounces the reader):

We de-li-a-pel-sin.
Many of us, and he o-one.
This is a dol-ka - for e-Ms.
This is dol-ka for stri-ja.
This is dol-ka for u-tyat.
This is dol-ka for ko-tyat.
This is a dol-ka for a bob-ra.
And for vol-ka - ko-zh-ra.
He is talking to us - be-yes!
Who-ka-who-ku-yes!)

Parents are interested in the question of whether to teach preschoolers to read, and if Yes, how to do it right. First of all, you need to help the child master by the way of reading syllables and words.
At the initial stage of training, the focus should be on to prevent the so-called “letter-by-letter” reading (the child separately calls sounds, does not merge them into a syllable). The child must learn to read both letters of a direct syllable in a single merger, opening the mouth for this one time, i.e. at the time of pronouncing the vowel. Resistant and correct, brought to automatism reading syllables with a certain vowel sound is the basis for reading the simplest one, two syllable words. Reading words like “poppy”, “sleep”, “forest” is carried out based on the perception of two reading units - merging a consonant with a vowel and a consonant, which joins the merger of “ma + k”, “co + n”, “le + c”.

Gradually, the pause between the merge and the consonant sound is reduced, and the children move to syllabic reading such words.

For training exercises in reading it is necessary to use bright, colorful books intended for this purpose. All kinds of "Bukvari" and "ABC" in Large quantities are commercially available. Should not take the textbook used in the first grade of a three-year and four-year primary school, approved by the Ministry Education of Ukraine. (N. F. Skripchenko. N. S. Vashchulenko. Primer. K. Osvita, 99).

If a child enters a school where primary school is taught under the state program, he will work with such a letter for the entire school year (in a four-year primary school).
In some schools, primary education is carried out according to the author’s programs are taught not only in Ukrainian, but also in Russian language. In case your child enters such a school, he will have to master A new symbolism in the designation, say, of vowels and consonants, to learn write sentences schemes in another way, etc. For example, a program that develops training (according to the system of D. B. Elkonin - VV Davydov) provides for recording consonants in the sound model of the word using squares, and the designation words in the sentence pattern - using rectangles (different to denote names of objects, actions and signs) and triangles (official words).
By no means setting a goal to encourage parents to work independently with children by primer, which is used in the program of developmental education, Let us dwell on what its fundamental difference from the traditional textbook. So, before us is a textbook: Repkin V.V. and others. Primer (program of development study) Approved by the Ministry of Education of Ukraine. Kharkov - Tomsk. NNMTS “Developmental education”.

For the first time, an ABC for developmental learning was created by an outstanding psychologist. D. B. Elkonin (1904 - 1984). The textbook published by him in 1961 was enthusiastically met by foreign experts, remaining virtually unknown to us in the country. He marked the beginning of the development of the system of developmental education for schoolchildren, which caused a lively interest not only abroad, but, finally, and we in the country (Elkonin-Davydov system).
The content of developmental literacy is fundamentally different from the traditional. The child is not just shown the methods of reading and writing that he needs to reproduce, it must “open” these methods, exploring sound matter native language. The authors of the textbook believe that “precisely because of this the situation of literacy changes, especially for children who come to school, knowing how to read at least a little. What should such a student do while when other children try to master the methods of reading shown by the teacher Does he already own something? But the sound matter of the language that children encounter with developmental training, for the reading student is also new and unknown, as for the non-reader. Solving her secrets, finding tools and ways modeling a sounding word is a business that equalizes and carries away all children, regardless of their prior training. ”
This program (Elkonin-Davydov system) is one of several copyright programs that teach children in primary school. Choosing school for a child (school, gymnasium, kindergarten, school), ask for which program they work there, ask teachers to give the necessary explanations and recommendations. You need to make sure that it corresponds to the level of development, mental abilities, temperament, features of the psyche of your child.

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  • Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age

    Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age Teaching children to read and write at preschool age